宝生佛

Ratnasambhava Buddha - (Sarvadurgati Tantra)

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编号:HAR15

中文名称:宝生佛

英文名称: Ratnasambhava Buddha - (Sarvadurgati Tantra)

尺幅:76.20x53.34cm (30x21in)

类别:彩唐

材质:棉布

题材:人物(千佛)

收藏:Rubin Museum of Art

地域:西藏

年份:15世纪(1400 - 1499)

传承:不确定,

内容:

宝生佛(Ratnasambhava),(藏语:rin chen jung den,sang gye):金刚界中的主佛,代表觉悟的品质,居住在曼陀罗的南部。

        “宝生佛(Ratnasambhava)骑在马上,出现在南方,在莲花和太阳宝座上的;身体黄色,右手持至高无上的施愿印。”(竹巴坚赞 Dragpa Gyaltsen,1147-1216)

        他以传统的佛像姿势坐着,呈寂静相,一面二臂,黄色色身。头发堆积在头顶上,形成一个顶髻,一些松散在肩部。前额金色白毫,目光亲切,嘴巴微笑着上扬。右手伸展到膝盖,手掌朝向外面持施愿印。左手放在膝盖上持禅定。头上饰有金色和宝石的王冠,两侧有橘黄色的缎带在飘扬。花朵装饰在耳朵的顶部,装饰性的环挂在耳垂上。身上有装饰用的项链,项链、手链和手镯 – 全部由黄金和珠宝组成。肩上覆盖着紫色的长袍,一条橙色的围巾包裹着胸部。红色,紫色和紫色裙子覆盖着下半身。他双腿折叠以金刚坐姿,坐在多彩色莲花和马支撑的宝座上面,被绿色的雨云和黄色的头光包围着。宝座靠背上装饰着两个摩羯(makaras),两个小男孩和一只红色的手握长蛇的迦楼罗鸟(Garuda)栖息在上面。
        
        在宝座的每一边都站着一个年轻的菩萨,苍白的肤色,双手在心脏处各持手印,身上装饰着金,珠宝和丝绸。在靠背的左上角和右边缘有6个坐着的菩萨拿着各种法器。在他们上面,左边是文殊菩萨(Namasangiti),橘黄色,有一张脸和四只手,右边的手各持剑和箭,左手拿着经书书和弓。旁边是四臂观音(Arya Avalokiteshvara),白色,有一张脸和四只手。 第一对在心脏处持合掌印,第二对持念珠和一朵莲花。在顶部中心是另一个宝生佛(Ratnasambhava),和中心人物有着相同的外观和着装。

        沿着宝座前面是4个女性守护者中的三位,坐在绿色和蓝色马之间。在南方中间是Vajrapashi拿着一个套索。在左边,西边,是Vajraphota拿着一个链条;在右边,东边,是Vajrakushi拿着一个钩。看不见的背后,北边是Vajraghanta。在底部中心是一个愤怒的蓝色男性人物,有一张脸和六只手。两侧和上面是三个愤怒的侍者,白色,蓝色和绿色,每个人都有一张脸和两只手,以一个愤怒的站姿,右腿弯曲,左腿伸直。虽然外观上和通常的六臂大黑天(Shadbhuja Mahakala)相似,但法器和随从是不同的,从而引起对人物正确身份的怀疑。

        在底部左侧是南方方向守护者,阎魔敌(Yama),蓝色,像神的样子,骑着一个棕色的水牛。站在旁边的是南方守卫之王,增长天王(Virudhaka),蓝色,双手拿着一把长剑,戴着头盔和战士的服装。在底部右边是西南方的方向守护者,Rakshasa,黄色,骑在一个棕色的僵尸背后。

        周围一共有165个阿弥陀佛(Amitabha)。红色,排列成行,每个都有一张脸和两只手,他们双手在膝盖上持禅定印,捧着钵,穿着红色长袍,金刚坐姿,周围被背光包围。狮子支撑着的宝座,沿着底部的长度延伸。(参见画# 270,几乎相同的组成和结构)
        
    ​    ​宝生佛(Ratnasambhava)在金刚界(Vajrayana Buddhism)占据中心地位,是密续五方佛的第四主,并且贯穿于无上瑜伽部(anuttarayoga)的四大密续之中。

issland 译自 himalayanart.org
2017/1/21

原文

Ratnasambhava, Buddha (Tibetan: rin chen jung den, sang gye): a principal buddha within Vajrayana Buddhism representing the qualities of enlightenment and residing in the southern quarter of a mandala."Arising in the southern direction is Ratnasambhava on a horse, lotus and sun throne; with a body yellow in colour the right hand is placed in the mudra of supreme generosity." (Dragpa Gyaltsen, 1147-1216).Peaceful in appearance, with one face and two hands, yellow in colour, he sits in the traditional posture of a buddha. The hair is piled on the crown of the head forming a topknot with some falling loose across the shoulders. A gold dot adorns the forehead, the eyes gaze kindly and the mouth is turned upwards in a gentle smile. The right hand is extended across the knee with the palm facing outward in the mudra (gesture) of supreme generosity. The left hand placed in the lap performs the mudra of meditation. The head is adorned with a crown of gold and jewels with orange ribbons fluttering at the sides. Flowers adorn the tops of the ears and decorative rings hang from the lobes. The body is adorned with chokers, necklaces, bracelets and bangles - all of gold and jewels. The shoulders are covered with a purple robe and an orange scarf is wrapped about the breast. A red, purple and violet skirt covers the lower body. With the legs folded in vajra posture he is seated above a multi-coloured lotus and horse supported throne, surrounded by a green nimbus and yellow areola. The backrest of the throne is decorated with two makaras (mythical sea creatures), two small boys and a red Garuda bird perched at the top with the hands and wings outstretched holding the length of a snake.At each side of the throne stands a youthful bodhisattva, pale in complexion, with the hands at the heart performing the mudra of teaching, adorned with gold, jewels and silks. At the upper left and right edge of the backrest are 6 more seated bodhisattvas holding various objects. Above that at the left is Arya Manjushri in the appearance of Namasangiti, orange in colour, with one face and four hands holding a sword and arrow in the right and a book and bow in the left. At the side is Arya Avalokiteshvara in the appearance of Chaturbhuja, white in colour with one face and four hands. The first pair at the heart is clasped together and the second hold prayer beads - mala, and a lotus flower at the sides. At the top center is another figure of Ratnasambhava in the same appearance and attire as the central figure.Along the front of the throne are 3 of the 4 female Door Guardians seated between the green and blue horses. In the middle for the southern direction is Vajrapashi holding a lasso. At the left, west, is Vajrasphota holding a chain and at the right, east, Vajrakushi holding a hook. Unseen behind for the north would be Vajraghanta. At the bottom center is a wrathful blue male figure with one face and six hands. At the two sides and above are three wrathful attendants, white, blue and green, each with one face and two hands standing in a wrathful gesture with the right leg bent and the left straight. Although similar in appearance to the usual Shadbhuja Mahakala the hand implements and entourage are different and raise doubt as to the correct identification of the figure.At the bottom left side is the Direction Guardian of the south, Yama, blue, in the appearance of a heavenly god, riding a brown buffalo. Standing alongside is the Guardian King of the South, Virudhaka, blue in colour, holding a long sword with both hands, wearing a helmet and the garments of a warrior. At the bottom right is the Direction Guardian of the southwest, Rakshasa, yellow, riding on the back of a brown zombie.Surrounding all of that are 165 buddha Amitabha figures. Red in colour, aligned in rows, each with one face and two hands, they perform the mudra of meditation with the two hands in the lap and hold a begging bowl, wearing red robes and seated in vajra posture, surrounded by circles of light. The structure of a lion supported throne extends along the length of the bottom. (See painting #270 for an almost identical composition and structure).

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